Regione Toscana

Glossary and Sources

Glossary and Sources 2018-11-26T11:22:44+00:00

GLOSSARY

ACADEMIC YEAR
Period of 12 months – stretching over two calendar years – during which teaching takes place, i.e. lessons, exercises and laboratory activities.

AREAS OF THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY COUNCIL (CUN)
The National University Council represents an advisory and proposing body of the Ministry of Education, University and Research. In performing its duties as the elective body representing the university system, it expresses opinions, formulates proposals, adopts motions, makes recommendations, studies and analyses any subject of interest to the university system. The CUN has set up 14 different areas:

  • Area 01 Mathematics and informatics
  • Area 02 Physics
  • Area 03 Chemistry
  • Area 04 Earth Science
  • Area 05 Biology
  • Area 06 Medicine
  • Area 07 Agricultural and veterinary science
  • Area 08 Civil engineering and architecture
  • Area 09 Industrial and information engineering
  • Area 10 Antiquities, philology, literary studies, art history
  • Area 11 History, philosophy, pedagogy and psychology
  • Area 12 Law
  • Area 13 Economics and statistics
  • Area 14 Political and social science

RESEARCH FELLOW
A research fellow is someone who has received a grant (or funding) to carry out research activities. Grants are awarded by public selection procedure based on a specific call, and candidates must have a suitable scientific-professional curriculum for carrying out this activity.

DEGREE CLASS
A way to group together the different courses included in a single cycle. Degree classes have a name (title) and a class expressed as a number. The features of each class are defined at a national level, with specific ministerial decrees, and are therefore shared by all universities. There are 43 classes for degrees; 94 classes for master’s degrees; 4 classes for healthcare degrees and 4 for master’s degrees for healthcare; 1 class for the single-cycle master’s degree in law; and 1 class for the single-cycle master’s degree in primary education.

DEGREE COURSE
A three-year training course during which, to graduate, students must earn 180 credits, i.e. 60 credits per year.

MASTER’S DEGREE COURSE
A two-year training course following a three-year degree; to graduate, students must earn 120 credits.

SINGLE-CYCLE MASTER’S DEGREE COURSE
A five- or six-year training course; to graduate, students must earn 300 (for a five-year course) or 360 (for a six-year course) credits.

INFORMATION DASHBOARD
An easy to read, information at a glance display system. The current system is characterised both by its informative (that is, it returns one or more types of information), and by its interactive character, allowing information to be navigated through real interaction with data and visualizations.

DATASET
A collection of data, generally about the same organization, that are jointly distributed and managed.

OPEN DATA
Data that can be freely used, redistributed by anyone (with a few limitations: such as the requirement to cite the source, or using copyleft licenses).

PUBLIC RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS (EPF)
The research institutions listed in Legislative Decree 218/2016.

TUSCAN PUBLIC RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS
Public research institutions based or operating in Tuscany.

FP7
More commonly called the “Seventh Framework Program”, it is a European direct management program for research and technological development, in force from 2007 to 2013. FP7 was designed for both the public and private sectors and a total of €53.2 billion was made available.

HORIZON-2020
Horizon-2020 was set up as a “program […] of the European Union (EU) for research and innovation”, in force from 2014-2020. The EU has allocated a substantial amount of funding for research projects with a high scientific and innovative content, with the aim of making Europe the world leader in science, combining and stimulating international, interdisciplinary and investment collaboration from private individuals in research.

PERCENTAGE FUNDING
The percentage impact of the funding is the product of the ratio between total funding obtained from the region or institute selected in a given thematic area and the total allocated by the European Union in reference to the chosen area.

INTEGRATION
All processes carried out on data from different sources in order to provide the user with a unified view of that data. Integration allows different databases to be “virtually” synchronised, without needing to extract data from the source.

ENROLMENT AND REGISTRATION
A student is “registered” if they are signed up for any year or any type of degree course. Enrolment occurs once, when signing up to a university course for the first time. Therefore, “enrolled” students are first year undergraduates in the first year of the three-year degree (more commonly called “degree”) or the single-cycle master’s degree course.

LINKED OPEN DATA
This term, coined in 2006 by the Web inventor Tim Berners Lee (Berners Lee, 2006), refers to a series of best practices to structure, connect and publish datasets (a set of data) according to the languages ​​and methods of the semantic web. The publication of Linked Open Data allows developers to more easily establish links between information from different sources, making it possible to create new and innovative applications.

ONTOLOGY
In computer science, a formal and shared representation of the concepts and mutual relationships that characterize a certain domain of knowledge.

ORDINARY PROFESSOR
An ordinary professor (also called first level professor) has been assigned a professorship; this position represents the highest academic qualification available.

EXTRAORDINARY PROFESSOR
An extraordinary professor is in the three years preceding an appointment as ordinary professor. In the previous university reform, before finally taking up the role of first level professor, there was a three-year period followed by a scientific and didactic evaluation. This no longer applies under current legislation.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
An associate professor (also known as second level professor) has been assigned a teaching position. Their academic position is lower than that of a first level professor.

UNCONFIRMED ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
An unconfirmed associate professor is in the three years preceding an appointment as associate professor. In the previous university reform, before finally taking up the role of second level professor, there was a three-year period followed by a scientific and didactic evaluation. This no longer applies under current legislation.

ORIGIN OF MAIN PARTNERS
The main partners, whether public or private, are divided according to their origin. According to how the source data is structured, partners are registered in the place where they have their main office. This means that if a given partner has its head office in Rome and a branch in Tuscany, and the latter collaborates with a Tuscan university, the partner will be recorded under “Rest of Italy” and not “Tuscany”. This distortion, which is particularly common for the so-called National Research Organizations (e.g. CNR, CNRS, CSIC, etc.), is known as the “headquarters effect”.

ORIGIN OF ENROLMENTS
The origin of enrolled students has been calculated according to their residence, as registered by the university during enrolment.

RDF (Resource Description Framework)
RDF is a series of specifications developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to provide a metadata modelling tool in a variety of formats.

PERMANENT RESEARCHER
Permanent researchers contribute to the development of university scientific research and perform integrative teaching tasks. There are a fixed number of permanent researchers.

UNCONFIRMED PERMANENT RESEARCHER
An unconfirmed permanent researcher is in the three years preceding an appointment as a permanent researcher. In the previous university reform, before finally taking up the role of permanent researcher, there was a three-year period followed by a scientific and didactic evaluation. This no longer applies under current legislation.

TYPE A (junior) OR TYPE B (senior) FIXED TERM RESEARCHER
The position of fixed term researcher (rtd) of type A or B was introduced by “Law 240 of 30 December 2010”, in particular article 24, which sets out the selection and career criteria. The position of “fixed-term researcher type A” is a three-year contract renewable for a maximum of two years; “fixed-term researcher type B” is a non-renewable three-year contract, at the end of which a judgment is expressed on the work of the researcher: if the outcome is positive and the researcher has obtained national scientific qualification, they will pass to the role of associate professor.

FIXED TERM RESEARCHER
Fixed-term researchers carry out research and supplementary teaching activities. The contracts have a maximum duration of three years and can be renewed for a total duration of six years. There are a fixed number of permanent researchers.

SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
A disciplinary distinction used in Italy to organize higher education. The current sectors are established by Ministerial Decree 855 of 30 October 2015 and are effective from 20 November 2015, date of publication in the Official Gazette. There are 367 scientific-disciplinary sectors, corresponding to 188 sectors of public tenders (SC), 88 macro-sectors and 14 areas. Each professor in an Italian university belongs to a single sector.

SPARQL Endpoint
An acronym for “SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language” – a formal language for querying the data represented in the RDF format (acronym for “Resource Description Framework“). It is one of the standard languages, recommended by the W3C, which characterizes the so-called Semantic Web.

NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS
National students are those who hold Italian citizenship; international students are therefore all those who do not possess Italian citizenship, although residing in Italy. This number does not include international transfer students, such as those enrolled in the Erasmus+ program, Erasmus Mundus, etc.

TYPE OF DIPLOMA
The reorganization of the second cycle of the national education system has created three different education paths:

  • “Lyceum” high schools, divided into six different types: classical, linguistic, scientific (with the novelty option of an “applied sciences” course), human sciences (with the economic-social option), music and dance, and artistic. –
  • Technical schools, divided into two sectors: economic and technological, within which are 11 study paths.
  • Vocational schools, divided into two sectors: services and industry, within which are 6 study paths.

SOURCES

National Register of Students (ANS)
Period: academic year 2003/2004 – academic year 2017/2018.
As reported on the ANS website: “an administrative archive in which all students signed up to the Italian university system are registered. Through this portal, the MIUR allows for the archive to be consulted in real time, with information on enrolments, registrations and degrees of all universities authorized to issue a university degree (both state and non-state). The data present in the ANS is submitted monthly by the universities, so they may vary with each monthly update.”
To consult the official data extracted by ANS on 31 July each year – the date conventionally taken as the end of the academic year – and statistically validated, refer to the website of the Statistical Office and Studies of the Ministry of Education: http://ustat.miur.it

Search for University
Period: 2000 – 2018
As reported on the CercaUniversità website: “a service that aggregates all possible searches regarding university, from graduate courses to funding, from teachers to students, from tenders to statistics”. The site is managed by the Ministry of Education, University and Research in collaboration with Cineca.

MIUR statistics
Period: 2004 – 2014
The “statistiche.miur” source of the Ministry of Education, University and Research, has now been abandoned and replaced with USTAT (some USTAT-MIUR datasets are currently being integrated).

CORDIS
Period: 2007 – 2019
The main public archive and portal of the European Commission to disseminate public information on all EU-funded research projects.